Preinstallation Tasks Table Of ContentsPreinstallation TasksThis chapter describes the tasks you must perform prior to installing the CCNSC Subscriber Provisioning product. The following tasks are described in this chapter:.–.––––––.
Setting Up the Oracle ServerThe Oracle 8.1.6 Server/Client database is integral to provisioning devices using the CCNSC Subscriber Provisioning software. Before you can install the CCNSC Subscriber Provisioning software, the Oracle database must be installed, running, and set up. It is highly recommended that the Oracle Server be installed on a machine separate from the CCNSC Subscriber Provisioning Server and the Cisco Network Registrar. If the Oracle Server is installed on a separate machine from the CCNSC Subscriber Provisioning Server, then the Oracle Client must be installed on the CCNSC Subscriber Provisioning Server.
However, setting up the Oracle database is outside the scope of this documentation. For information about setting up the Oracle database, refer to the Oracle 8i Installation Guide. Note During CCNSC Subscriber Provisioning installation, an active connection to the Oracle server is established. If this connection fails, the CCNSC Subscriber Provisioning installation is terminated and the script exits.Recommended Oracle Server InstallationFollowing are the steps you must follow to set up the Oracle Server. During the Oracle installation process, tablespace must be set up for the CCNSC Subscriber Provisioning servers.Step 1 Follow the Oracle 8i Installation Guide and then, while installing Oracle, select theOracle 8i Enterprise Edition 22.214.171.124.0 and Typical (999MB) installation options.
You must also set up a database instance with an Oracle SID so an Oracle client can access the Oracle Server. In this case, the SID is CCNSC.Step 2 Create tablespace for use by the CCNSC Subscriber Provisioning servers by following these steps:a.
Login as the oracle user.b. Start the Oracle Server Manager by running the following:% svrmgrl connect internalc. Create the tablespace for CCNSC Subscriber Provisioning servers by specifying the following: create tablespace CCNSCDAT datafile '//CCNSCDAT01.dbf' size 200M autoextend on next 50M maxsize unlimited;The data directory you specify must already exist and have write permissions for the oracle user. The tablespace and datafile names you assign are arbitrary.
You can use any names that help you keep track of what files are associated with what database. The only requirement is that the name given to the tablespace at the time of its creation ( CCNSCDAT in the example) be the same as the default tablespace listed when you create the CCNSC user account.The autoextend option allows Oracle to automatically extend your datafile. The maximum size of the datafile will be limited only by the available space on the file's disk.d.
Create the CCNSC Subscriber Provisioning Oracle User Account and grant access to it by following these steps: CREATE USER ccnsc IDENTIFIED BY ccnsc DEFAULT TABLESPACE CCNSCDAT; GRANT CONNECT TO ccnsc; GRANT RESOURCE TO ccnsc;You should use this user name and password ( ccnsc for both) along with the Oracle SID ( CCNSC) when you specify the Oracle information during installation of the CCNSC Subscriber Provisioning product.e. Exit the Oracle Server Manager by typing exit.Step 3 Test your Oracle connection by specifying: sqlplus ccnsc/ccnsc@CCNSC. If the sqlplus prompt is displayed, it has been set up correctly. If not, check if your database instance is up, if the listener is up, and if your environment is set up properly, then try connecting again.CCNSC SP ServerThe CCNSC Subscriber Provisioning Server requires several tasks to be done before it can be installed and subsequently, operate properly. Go through each of the following sections to set up the CCNSC Subscriber Provisioning Server. Setting Up a CCNSC SP Group and User(s)A CCNSC SP group and user account is required for CCNSC SP installation and administration. You can use this user account for running CCNSC SP or to create other users if different UNIX accounts are necessary for each user.
You must preform the following tasks:Step 1 Create a CCNSC SP group name with the admintool utility or the groupadd command. For example:groupadd spgrpStep 2 Create a CCNSC SP installation user within the CCNSC SP group you created (for example, spgrp) for the user's group with the admintool utility or the useradd command. Note If you specify a smaller value than any of the values shown above, the CCNSC Subscriber Provisioning server should still work, however, that it may not be able to maintain or create as many objects as you desire.Adding Solaris PatchesRefer to the $CCNSCHOME/ReadMe.txt file (when one exists) on the CCNSC Subscriber Provisioning software distribution media for a comprehensive list of the required patches that you must install prior to installing the CCNSC Subscriber Provisioning software on your system. You can download the Solaris 7 Recommended Patch Cluster and the other required patches from the following URL:http://sunsolve.sun.com/pub-cgi/show.pl?target=patches/patch-access. Tip Even after adding all of the patches required by CCNSC Subscriber Provisioning, if you still get patch errors, execute the following:showrev -p grep where is the patch number that the installation program indicates is not installed.Next, if you see the patch listed as an obsolete patch, navigate to the $CCNSCHOME/common directory (where $CCNSCHOME is the directory in which the ccnscInstall program is located). Modify the patches.dat file as follows:Comment out the line containing the patch by putting a '#' at the start of the line.
The installation program reads this file to check for required patches. If you are installing from a CD-ROM, you may want to copy the $CCNSCHOME directory to some temporary location before modifying the patches.dat file. Checking the /opt Directory PermissionsThe /opt directory must be set up with 755 permissions. As root, specify the following command from the root directory ( cd /) to check the directory's permissions.ls -l grep /optdrwxr-xr-x 13 root sys 512 Aug 20 20:32 optIf the output shows anything other than only the user having write permission, and the user, group, and others all having read and execute permissions (drwxr-xr-x) as shown above, change the /opt directory permissions using the following command:chmod 755 /opt Recommended Oracle Client InstallationIf the Oracle Server is installed on a remote server, follow the steps below. Note If the Oracle Server is installed on the same machine as the CCNSC Subscriber Provisioning Server software, only do Step 3 below after you have done the Oracle Server set up as shown in the.Step 1 Follow the Oracle 8i Installation Guide and then, while installing Oracle, select theOracle 8i Client 126.96.36.199.0 and Administrator (333MB) installation options. You must also add the Oracle SID to access the Oracle Server. In this case, the SID is CCNSC.Step 2 As the oracle user and within the $ORACLEHOME directory, create an oracle.csh file with your particular environment variables for use by the CCNSC Subscriber Provisioning installation software.
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Below is an example oracle.csh file.setenv ORACLEBASE /opt/oraclesetenv ORACLEHOME /opt/oracle/product/8.1.6setenv ORACLESID CCNSCsetenv ORACLEPATH $ORACLEHOME/bin:/usr/bin:/usr/ccs/binsetenv LDLIBRARYPATH $ORACLEHOME/lib:/usr/openwin/lib:/usr/dt/lib:/usr/libsetenv PATH.:$ORACLEPATHStep 3 Test your Oracle connection by specifying: sqlplus ccnsc/ccnsc@CCNSC. If the sqlplus prompt is displayed, it has been set up correctly. If not, check if your database instance is up, if the listener is up, and if your environment is set up properly, then try connecting again.Setting Up a TFTP ServerThe CCNSC Subscriber Provisioningsoftware is designed to use the Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) as one of its options to upload and download network element data. Before you can use this protocol, however, you must configure a machine to be a TFTP server. If you use a remote TFTP server for a CCNSC Subscriber Provisioning Server, Provisioning Utilities, or Standalone Telnet Gateway machine, the /tftpboot directory must be mounted on the CCNSC Subscriber Provisioning server machine. Note The TFTP server must be up and running before you can start the CCNSC Subscriber Provisioning servers.Enabling the TFTP DaemonStep 1 Log in as the superuser and edit the /etc/inetd.conf file.
Locate the line that enables TFTP:#tftp dgram udp wait root /usr/sbin/in.tftpd in.tftpd -s /tftpbootStep 2 If one exists, remove the comment character (#) from the beginning of the line.Step 3 Save your changes and exit the text editor.Step 4 CCNSC Subscriber Provisioning requires the TFTP directory to be named /tftpboot. If you are not able to do this, you must set up a symbolic link to your TFTP directory (the user who launches the servers must have write permission to this directory.) If for some reason your network requires you to use something like myTftp, you should create a symbolic link by specifying the following:ln -s /myTftp /tftpbootStep 5 To verify that your workstation is TFTP enabled, specify the following:ps -ef grep -v grep grep inetdThe output displays the process identification number for the inetd configuration. For example:root 106 1 0 Sep 21? 0:00 /usr/sbin/inetd -sThe first column shows the user ID of the user who owns the process ( inetd is owned by root).
Note:If necessary, refer to the X server documentation for more information about completing this procedure. Depending on the X server software that you are using, you may need to complete the tasks in a different order.Start the X server software.Configure the security settings of the X server software to permit remote hosts to display X applications on the local system.Connect to the remote system where you want to install the software and start a terminal session on that system, for example, an X terminal ( xterm).If you are not logged in as the root user on the remote system, then enter the following command to switch user to root:$ sudo shpassword:#. Note:Oracle recommends that you take multiple values for the available RAM and swap space before finalizing a value. This is because the available RAM and swap space keep changing depending on the user interactions with the computer.Automatic Memory ManagementStarting with Oracle Database 11 g, the Automatic Memory Management feature requires more shared memory ( /dev/shm)and file descriptors. The size of the shared memory should be at least the greater of MEMORYMAXTARGET and MEMORYTARGET for each Oracle instance on the computer. If MEMORYMAXTARGET or MEMORYTARGET is set to a non zero value, and an incorrect size is assigned to the shared memory, it will result in an ORA-00845 error at startup.
The number of file descriptors for each Oracle instance should be at least 512. PROCESSES. Also, the limit of descriptors for each process should be at least 512. If file descriptors are not sized correctly, you will notice ORA-27123 from various Oracle processes and potentially Linux Error EMFILE (Too many open files) errors in non-Oracle processes.To determine the amount of shared memory available, enter the following command:# df -k /dev/shm/. Note: MEMORYMAXTARGET and MEMORYTARGET cannot be used when LOCKSGA is enabled or with huge pages on Linux.On the Initialization Parameters page, note that Memory Size (SGA and PGA), which sets the initialization parameter MEMORYTARGET or MEMORYMAXTARGET. Note that the initialization parameters cannot be greater than the shared memory file system on the operating system. For example, if the shared memory file system allocation on your system is 1 GB, but you set Memory Size ( MEMORYTARGET) to 2 GB, then the following error messages are displayed during database startup:ORA-00845: MEMORYTARGET not supported on this systemORA-01078: Failure in processing system parametersIn addition, if you click All Initialization Parameters and the global database name is longer than 8 characters, then the database name value (in the DBNAME parameter) is truncated to the first eight characters, and the DBUNIQUENAME parameter value is set to the global name.
Note:Oracle Universal Installer performs checks to verify that the system meets the listed requirements. To ensure that these checks pass, verify the requirements before you start Oracle Universal Installer.On Linux x86 and Linux x86-64:.Asianux 2 SP2.Asianux 3.Oracle Linux 4.Oracle Linux 5.Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 10To determine the distribution and version of Linux installed, enter the following command:# cat /proc/version. Note:.Oracle recommends that you install your Linux operating system with the default software packages (RPMs), unless you specifically intend to perform a minimal installation, and follow the directions for performing such an installation to ensure that you have all required packages for Oracle software.Oracle recommends that you do not customize RPMs during a default operating system installation. A default installation includes most required packages, and will help you to limit manual checks of package dependencies.If you did not perform a default Linux installation, you intend to use LDAP, and you want to use the scripts odisrvreg, oidca, or schemasync, then install the Korn shell RPM for the Linux distribution.You must install the packages (or later versions) listed in the following table. Also, ensure that the list of RPMs and all of the prerequisites for these RPMs are installed.On Linux x86. 188.8.131.52 Oracle ODBC DriversIf you intend to use ODBC, then you should install the most recent ODBC Driver Manager for Linux. You can download and install the Driver Manager from the following link:Linux RPMs are available on the site.
184.108.40.206 Browser RequirementsWeb browsers must support Java Script and the HTML 4.0 and CSS 1.0 standards. The following browsers meet these requirements:.For Oracle Application Express:.Microsoft Internet Explorer 6.0 or later version.Firefox 1.0 or a later version.For Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control:.Netscape Navigator 7.2.Netscape Navigator 8.1.Mozilla version 1.7.Microsoft Internet Explorer 6.0 SP2.Microsoft Internet Explorer 7.0.Firefox 1.0.4.Firefox 1.5.Firefox 2.0. 2.4 Preinstallation Requirements for Oracle Configuration ManagerDuring the installation, you are prompted to provide information required to enable Oracle Configuration Manager. When you create a service request with Oracle Support, the configuration information can help to provide a rapid resolution to the service issue.You can enable Oracle Configuration Manager during or after installation.
To enable it during the installation, you must have the following information available:.Customer Support Identification Number (CSI) that identifies your organization.the My Oracle Support (formerly Oracle MetaLink) user account name.Country code associated with the service agreementRefer to the My Oracle Support (formerly Oracle MetaLink) ( ) if there is a registration failures and you are uncertain that the correct country code has been specified. You can find the country associated with the My Oracle Support (formerly Oracle MetaLink) account in the Profile section under the Licenses link. 2.5.1 Configuring Name ResolutionWhen you run Oracle Universal Installer, an error may occur if name resolution is not set up. To avoid this error, before you begin installation, you must ensure that host names are resolved through the /etc/hosts file.To ensure that host names are resolved only through the /etc/hosts file:.Verify that the /etc/hosts file is used for name resolution. 2.5.2 Installing on DHCP ComputersDynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) assigns dynamic IP addresses on a network. Dynamic addressing enables a computer to have a different IP address each time it connects to the network. In some cases, the IP address can change while the computer is still connected.
You can have a mixture of static and dynamic IP addressing in a DHCP system.In a DHCP setup, the software tracks IP addresses, which simplifies network administration. This lets you add a new computer to the network without having to manually assign that computer a unique IP address. 2.5.3 Installing on Multihomed ComputersYou can install Oracle Database on a multihomed computer. A multihomed computer is associated with multiple IP addresses. This is typically achieved by having multiple network cards on the computer. Each IP address is associated with a host name. In addition, you can set up aliases for the host name.
By default, Oracle Universal Installer uses the ORACLEHOSTNAME environment variable setting to find the host name. If ORACLEHOSTNAME is not set and you are installing on a computer that has multiple network cards, then Oracle Universal Installer determines the host name by using the first entry in the /etc/hosts file.Clients must be able to access the computer either by using this host name or by using aliases for this host name. To verify this, ping the host name from the client computers using the short name (host name only) and the full name (host name and domain name). Both tests must be successful.Setting the ORACLEHOSTNAME Environment VariableUse the following procedure to set the ORACLEHOSTNAME environment variable. For example, if the fully qualified host name is somehost.us.example.com, then enter one of the following commands:In Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:$ ORACLEHOSTNAME=somehost.us.example.com$ export ORACLEHOSTNAMEIn C shell:% setenv ORACLEHOSTNAME somehost.us.example.com. 2.5.5 Installing on Non-Networked ComputersYou can install Oracle Database on a non-networked computer. If the computer, such as a laptop, is configured for DHCP and you plan to connect the computer to the network after the Oracle Database installation, then use the ping command on the computer on which you want to install the database to check if the computer can connect to itself.
Perform this step by first using only the host name and then using the fully qualified name, which should be in the /etc/hosts file. 2.6 Creating Required Operating System Groups and UsersDepending on whether this is the first time Oracle software is being installed on this system and on the products that you are installing, you may need to create several operating system groups and users.The following operating system groups and user are required if you are installing Oracle Database:.The OSDBA group ( dba)You must create this group the first time you install Oracle Database software on the system. It identifies operating system user accounts that have database administrative privileges (the SYSDBA privilege).
The default name for this group is dba.Oracle Universal Installer prompts you to specify this group name. If software owner is a member of the group dba, then Oracle Universal Installer defaults the OSDBA setting to dba.
However, you can also choose a different operating system group if required.The OSOPER group ( oper)This is an optional group. Create this group if you want a separate group of operating system users to have a limited set of database administrative privileges (the SYSOPER privilege). By default, members of the OSDBA group also have the SYSOPER privilege.In this case, Oracle Universal Installer prompts you to specify the name of this group. The usual name chosen for this group is oper.The OSASM group ( asmadmin)This feature introduces a new SYSASM privilege that is specifically intended for performing Automatic Storage Management administration tasks. Using the SYSASM privilege instead of the SYSDBA privilege provides a clearer division of responsibility between Automatic Storage Management administration and database administration. OSASM is a new operating system group that is used exclusively for Automatic Storage Management. Members of the OSASM group can connect as SYSASM using operating system authentication and have full access to Automatic Storage Management.
The usual name chosen for this group is asmadmin. See Also:'Authentication for Accessing Automatic Storage Management Instances' section in for more information on SYSASM privilege for Automatic Storage ManagementThe following operating system group and user are required for all installations:.The Oracle Inventory group ( Typically, oinstall)You must have a group whose members are given access to write to the Oracle Central Inventory ( oraInventory). The Central Inventory contains the following:.A registry of the Oracle home directories ( Oracle Database, and Automatic Storage Management) on the system.Installation logs and trace files from installations of Oracle software. These files are also copied to the respective Oracle homes for future reference.Other metadata inventory information regarding Oracle installations are stored in the individual Oracle home inventory directories, and are separate from the Central Inventory.For new installations, Oracle recommends that you allow OUI to create the Central Inventory directory.
By default, if you create an Oracle path in compliance with OFA (Optimal Flexible Architecture) structure, such as /u01/app, then the Central Inventory is created in the path u01/app/oraInventory, using correct permissions to allow all Oracle installation owners to write to this directory.The Oracle software owner user (typically, oracle)You must create this user the first time you install Oracle software on the system. This user owns all of the software installed during the installation. This user must have the Oracle Inventory group as its primary group. It must also have the OSDBA and OSOPER groups as secondary groups. Note:In Oracle documentation, this user is referred to as the oracle user.A single Oracle Inventory group is required for all installations of Oracle software on the system.
After the first installation of Oracle software, you must use the same Oracle Inventory group for all subsequent Oracle software installations on that system. However, you can choose to create different Oracle software owner users, OSDBA groups, and OSOPER groups (other than oracle, dba, and oper) for separate installations. By using different groups for different installations, members of these different groups have DBA privileges only on the associated databases rather than on all databases on the system. 2.6.1 Creating the Oracle Inventory GroupLog in as root, and use the following instructions to locate or create the Oracle Inventory group and a software owner:.Determining Whether the Oracle Inventory Group ExistsWhen you install Oracle software on the system for the first time, Oracle Universal Installer creates the oraInst.loc file. This file identifies the name of the Oracle Inventory group (typically, oinstall), and the path of the Oracle Inventory directory. 2.6.3 Creating an OSOPER Group (Optional)Create an OSOPER group only if you want to identify a group of operating system users with a limited set of database administrative privileges ( SYSOPER operator privileges). For most installations, it is sufficient to create only the OSDBA group.
If you want to use an OSOPER group, then you must create it in the following circumstances:.If an OSOPER group does not exist, for example, if this is the first installation of Oracle Database software on the system.If an OSOPER group exists, but you want to give a different group of operating system users database operator privileges in a new Oracle installationIf you require a new OSOPER group, then create it as follows. In the following command, use the group name oper unless a group with that name already exists.# /usr/sbin/groupadd oper. 2.6.4 Creating an OSASM GroupCreate an OSASM group only if you want SYSASM as a system privilege that enables the separation of the SYSDBA database administration privilege from the Automatic Storage Management storage administration privilege.
If you want to use an OSASM group, then you must create it in the following circumstances:.If an OSASM group does not exist, for example, if this is the first installation of Oracle Database software on the system.If an OSASM group exists, but you want to give a different group of operating system users database operator privileges in a new Oracle installationTo determine whether the OSASM group exists, enter the following command:# grep OSASM groupname /etc/groupIf the OSASM group does not exist or if you require a new OSASM group, then create it as follows. In the following command, use the group name asadmin unless a group with that name already exists.# /usr/sbin/groupadd asmadmin. 220.127.116.11 Determining Whether an Oracle Software Owner User ExistsTo determine whether an Oracle software owner user named oracle exists, enter the following command:# id oracleIf the oracle user exists, then the output from this command is similar to the following:uid=440(oracle) gid=200(oinstall) groups=201(dba),202(oper)If the user exists, then determine whether you want to use the existing user or create another oracle user. If you want to use the existing user, then ensure that the user's primary group is the Oracle Inventory group and that it is a member of the appropriate OSDBA and OSOPER groups.
Refer to one of the following sections for more information. 18.104.22.168 Creating an Oracle Software Owner UserIn the following procedure, use the user name oracle unless a user with that name already exists. If the Oracle software owner user does not exist or if you require a new Oracle software owner user, then create it as follows:.To create the oracle user, enter a command similar to the following:# /usr/sbin/useradd -g oinstall -G dba,oper oracleIn this command:.The -g option specifies the primary group, which must be the Oracle Inventory group, for example oinstall.The -G option specifies the secondary groups, which must include the OSDBA group and if required, the OSOPER group ( dba or oper).Set the password of the oracle user:# passwd oracle. ParameterMinimum ValueFilesemmslsemmnssemopmsemmni0128/proc/sys/kernel/semshmall2097152/proc/sys/kernel/shmallshmmaxMinimum of the following values:.Half the size of the memory.4GB - 1 byteNote: The minimum value required for shmmax is 0.5 GB. Note:Include lines only for the kernel parameter values that you want to change. For the semaphore parameters ( kernel.sem), you must specify all four values. However, if any of the current values are larger than the minimum value, then specify the larger value.fs.file-max = 6815744kernel.shmall = 2097152kernel.shmmax = kernel.shmmni = 4096kernel.sem = 250 32000 100 128net.ipv4.iplocalportrange = 9000 65500net.core.rmemdefault = 262144net.core.rmemmax = 4194304net.core.wmemdefault = 262144net.core.wmemmax = 1048576.
Note:The minimum value required for shmmax is 0.5 GB. However, Oracle recommends that you set the value of shmmax to 2.0 GB for optimum performance of the system.By specifying the values in the /etc/sysctl.conf file, they persist when you restart the system. However, on SUSE Linux Enterprise Server systems, enter the following command to ensure that the system reads the /etc/sysctl.conf file when it restarts:# /sbin/chkconfig boot.sysctl on.Enter the following command to change the current values of the kernel parameters:# /sbin/sysctl -pReview the output from this command to verify that the values are correct. If the values are incorrect, edit the /etc/sysctl.conf file, then enter this command again.Enter the command /sbin/sysctl -a to confirm that the values are set correctly.On SUSE systems only, enter the following command to cause the system to read the /etc/sysctl.conf file when it restarts:# /sbin/chkconfig boot.sysctl on.On SUSE systems only, you must enter the GID of the oinstall group as the value for the parameter /proc/sys/vm/hugetlbshmgroup. Doing this grants members of oinstall a group permission to create shared memory segments.For example, where the oinstall group GID is 501:# echo 501 /proc/sys/vm/hugetlbshmgroupAfter running this command, use vi to add the following text to /etc/sysctl.conf, and enable the boot.sysctl script to run on system restart:vm.hugetlbshmgroup=501. 2.9.1 Oracle Base DirectoryThe Oracle base directory is a top-level directory for Oracle software installations. On Linux systems, the Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) guidelines recommend that you use a path similar to the following for the Oracle base directory:/ mountpoint/app/ oracleswownerIn this example:.mountpoint is the mount point directory for the file system that will contain the Oracle software.The examples in this guide use /u01 for the mount point directory.
However, you can choose another mount point directory, such as /oracle or /opt/oracle.oracleswowner is the operating system user name of the Oracle software owner, for example oracle. Note:If you have an existing Oracle base, then you can select it from the Use existing list. By default, the list contains the existing value for Oracle base preselected. Refer to for further information.If you do not have an Oracle base, then you can create one by editing the text in the list box.You can use the same Oracle base directory for more than one installation or you can create separate Oracle base directories for different installations. If different operating system users install Oracle software on the same system, then each user must create a separate Oracle base directory. The following are the example of Oracle base directories that can exist on the same system:/u01/app/oracle/u01/app/orauser/opt/oracle/app/oracle. 2.9.2 Oracle Inventory DirectoryThe Oracle Inventory directory ( oraInventory) stores an inventory of all software installed on the system.
It is required and shared by all Oracle software installations on a single system. If you have an existing Oracle Inventory path, then Oracle Universal Installer continues to use that Oracle Inventory.The first time you install Oracle software on a system, Oracle Universal Installer checks if you have created an OFA-compliant directory structure with the format u01-09/app, such as /u01/app, and that the user running the installation has permissions to write to that path.
If this is true, then Oracle Universal Installer creates the Oracle Inventory directory similar to /u01-09/app/oraInventory. For example:/u01/app/oraInventoryIf you have set the environment variable ORACLEBASE for the oracle user, then Oracle Universal Installer creates the Oracle Inventory directory similar to $ORACLEBASE/./oraInventory. For example, if ORACLEBASE is set to /opt/oracle/11, then the Oracle Inventory directory is created similar to /opt/oracle/oraInventory.If you have neither created an OFA-compliant path nor set ORACLEBASE, then the Oracle Inventory directory is placed in the home directory of the user that is performing the installation. For example:/home/oracle/oraInventoryOracle Universal Installer creates the directory that you specify and sets the correct owner, group, and permissions for it. You do not need to create it. 2.9.3 Oracle Home DirectoryThe Oracle home directory is the directory where you choose to install the software for a particular Oracle product. You must install different Oracle products or different releases of the same Oracle product in separate Oracle home directories.
When you run Oracle Universal Installer, it prompts you to specify the path to this directory and a name that identifies it. The directory that you specify must be a subdirectory of the Oracle base directory. Oracle recommends that you specify a path similar to the following for the Oracle home directory: oraclebase/product/11.1.0/db1Oracle Universal Installer creates the directory path that you specify under the Oracle base directory. It also sets the correct owner, group, and permissions on it. You do not need to create this directory.
Note:Oracle recommends that you do not put the oraInventory directory under Oracle base for a new installation. However, if you have an existing installation, then you should follow the steps suggested in this section.Identifying an existing Oracle home directoryEnter the following command to display the contents of the oratab file:# more /etc/oratabIf the oratab file exists, then it contains lines similar to the following:.:/u03/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/db1:N.:/opt/orauser/infra904:N.:/oracle/9.2.0:NThe directory paths specified on each line identify Oracle home directories. Directory paths that end with the user name of the Oracle software owner that you want to use are valid choices for an Oracle base directory. If you intend to use the oracle user to install the software, then you can choose one of the following directories listed in the previous example:/u03/app/oracle/oracle.
Note:If possible, choose a directory path similar to the first one ( /u03/app/oracle). This path complies with the OFA guidelines.Identifying an existing Oracle base directoryAfter you have located the Oracle home directory, you can run the following command to confirm the location of Oracle base:cat inventory/ContentsXML/oraclehomeproperties.xmlBefore deciding to use an existing Oracle base directory for this installation, ensure that it satisfies the following conditions:.It should not be on the same file system as the operating system.It must have sufficient free disk space, as follows. 2.11 Choosing a Storage Option for Oracle Database and Recovery FilesOracle Database files include data files, control files, redo log files, the server parameter file, and the password file. For all installations, you must choose the storage option that you want to use for Oracle Database files.
If you want to enable automated backups during the installation, then you must also choose the storage option that you want to use for recovery files (the flash recovery area). You do not have to use the same storage option for each file type. Note:You do not have to use the same storage mechanism for data files and recovery files. You can use the file system for one file type and Automatic Storage Management for the other.
If you plan to use Automatic Storage Management for both data files and recovery files, then you should create separate Automatic Storage Management disk groups for the data files and the recovery files.If you plan to enable automated backups during the installation, then you can choose Automatic Storage Management as the storage mechanism for recovery files by specifying an Automatic Storage Management disk group for the flash recovery area. Depending on how you choose to create a database during the installation, you have the following options:.If you select an installation method that runs Oracle Database Configuration Assistant in an interactive mode, by choosing the Advanced database configuration option for example, then you can decide whether you want to use the same Automatic Storage Management disk group for database files and recovery files, or you can choose to use different disk groups for each file type. Note:You need to perform this step only when you intend to use an installation method that runs Oracle Database Configuration Assistant in an interactive mode. For example, if you intend to choose the Custom installation type or the Advanced database configuration option. Other installation types do not enable you to specify failure groups.If you intend to use a normal or high redundancy disk group, then you can further protect the database against hardware failure by associating a set of disk devices in a custom failure group.
By default, each device comprises its failure group. However, if two disk devices in a normal redundancy disk group are attached to the same SCSI controller, then the disk group becomes unavailable if the controller fails. The controller in this example is a single point of failure.To avoid failures of this type, you can use two SCSI controllers, each with two disks, and define a failure group for the disks attached to each controller. This configuration would enable the disk group to tolerate the failure of one SCSI controller. Note:If you define custom failure groups, then you must specify a minimum of two failure groups for normal redundancy disk groups and three failure groups for high redundancy disk groups.If you are sure that a suitable disk group does not exist on the system, then install or identify appropriate disk devices to add to a new disk group. Apply the following guidelines when identifying appropriate disk devices:.All the devices in an Automatic Storage Management disk group should be the same size and have the same performance characteristics.Do not specify more than one partition on a single physical disk as a disk group device.
Automatic Storage Management expects each disk group device to be on a separate physical disk.Oracle does not recommend the use of logical volume as a device in an Automatic Storage manger because the logical volume is capable of hiding the physical disk architecture which prevents Automatic Storage Manager from optimizing I/O across physical devices. Note:The Automatic Storage Management instance that manages the existing disk group can be running in a different Oracle home directory.To determine whether an existing Automatic Storage Management disk group exists, or to determine whether there is sufficient disk space in a disk group, you can use Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control or Database Control. Alternatively, you can use the following procedure:.View the contents of the oratab file to determine whether an Automatic Storage Management instance is configured on the system:# more /etc/oratabIf an Automatic Storage Management instance is configured on the system, then the oratab file should contain a line similar to the following:+ASM: oraclehomepath:NIn this example, +ASM is the system identifier ( SID) of the Automatic Storage Management instance and oraclehomepath is the Oracle home directory where it is installed.
2.13.5 Step 4: Configuring Disks for Automatic Storage ManagementOracle provides an Automatic Storage Management library driver that you can use to simplify the configuration and management of the disk devices that you want to use with Automatic Storage Management. A disk that is configured for Automatic Storage Management is known as a candidate disk.If you intend to use Automatic Storage Management for database storage, then Oracle recommends that you install the Automatic Storage Management library driver (ASMLIB) and associated utilities and use them to configure the devices that you want to include in an Automatic Storage Management disk group. Note:Automatic Storage Management library driver packages for some kernel versions are available on the Oracle Database installation media in the database/RPMS/asmlib directory. However, Oracle recommends that you check the Oracle Technology Network Web site for the most up-to-date packages.You must install the following packages, where version is the version of the Automatic Storage Management library driver, arch is the system architecture, and kernel is the version of the kernel that you are using:oracleasm-support- version. Arch.rpmoracleasm- kernel- version. Arch.rpmoracleasmlib- version.
Arch.rpm.Enter a command similar to the following to install the packages:# sudo rpm -Uvh oracleasm-support- version. Arch.rpm oracleasm- kernel- version. Arch.rpm oracleasmlib- version.
Disk TypeDevice Name FormatDescriptionIDE disk/dev/hd xnIn this example, x is a letter that identifies the IDE disk and n is the partition number. For example, /dev/hda is the first disk on the first IDE bus.SCSI disk/dev/sd xnIn this example, x is a letter that identifies the SCSI disk and n is the partition number.
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For example, /dev/sda is the first disk on the first SCSI bus.RAID disk/dev/rd/c xd yp z/dev/ida/c xd yp zDepending on the RAID controller, RAID devices can have different device names. In the examples shown, x is a number that identifies the controller, y is a number that identifies the disk, and z is a number that identifies the partition. For example, /dev/ida/c0d1 is the second logical drive on the first controller.To include devices in a disk group, you can specify either whole-drive device names or partition device names. Note:.If you are using a multi-pathing disk driver with Automatic Storage Management, then ensure that you specify the correct logical device name for the disk.The disk names that you specify can contain uppercase letters, numbers, and the underscore character. They must start with an uppercase letter.To create a database during the installation using the Automatic Storage Management library driver, you must change the default disk discovery string to ORCL:. These disks would be discovered if the diskstring is either set to ORCL:. or is left empty.Administering the Automatic Storage Management Library Driver and DisksTo administer the Automatic Storage Management library driver and disks, use the oracleasm initialization script with the following options.
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2.14 Configuring Disk Devices for Oracle DatabaseThe ODIRECT parameter enables direct read and writes to block devices, avoiding kernel overhead. With Oracle Database Release 10.2 and later, Oracle Database files are configured by default to use direct input/output.With the 2. 6 kernel or later for Red Hat Enterprise Linux, Oracle Linux, and SUSE Enterprise Server, you must create a permissions file to maintain permissions on Oracle database files. If you do not create this permissions file, then permissions on disk devices revert to their default values, root:disk, and Oracle database fails to start. Use the following steps to set the permissions file number:.On Asianux 2, Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4, and Oracle Linux 4, you must create a permissions file number that is lower than 50.On Asianux 3, Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5, Oracle Linux 5, or SUSE Enterprise Linux 10, you must create a permissions file number that is higher at 50.To configure a permissions file for disk devices, complete the following tasks:. 2.14.1 Example of Creating a Udev Permissions File for Oracle DatabaseThe procedure to create a permissions file to grant oinstall group members write privileges to block devices is as follows:.Log in as root.Change to the /etc/udev/permissions.d directory:# cd /etc/udev/permissions.d.Start a text editor, such as vi, and enter the partition information where you want to place the data files and voting disk files, using the syntax device partitions:root:oinstall:0640.
Oracle recommends that you place the data files on separate physical disks. 2.14.2 Example of Configuring Block Device Storage for Oracle DatabaseThe following is the procedure to create partitions for Oracle Database files on block devices:.Log in as root.Enter the fdisk command to format a specific storage disk. Note:If you are installing additional Oracle Database 11 g products in an existing Oracle home, then stop all processes running in the Oracle home. You must complete this task to enable Oracle Universal Installer to relink certain executables and libraries.If you choose to create a database during the installation, then most installation types configure and start a default Oracle Net listener using TCP/IP port 1521 and the IPC key value EXTPROC. However, if an existing Oracle Net listener process is using the same port or key value, Oracle Universal Installer can only configure the new listener, it cannot start it. To ensure that the new listener process starts during the installation, you must shut down any existing listeners before starting Oracle Universal Installer.To determine whether an existing listener process is running and to shut it down, if necessary:.Switch user to oracle:# su - oracle.Enter the following command to determine whether a listener process is running and to identify its name and the Oracle home directory in which it is installed:$ ps -ef grep tnslsnrThis command displays information about the Oracle Net listeners running on the system.
Oraclehome1/bin/tnslsnr LISTENER -inheritIn this example, oraclehome1 is the Oracle home directory where the listener is installed and LISTENER is the listener name. 2.16 Configuring the oracle User's EnvironmentYou run Oracle Universal Installer from the oracle account. However, before you start Oracle Universal Installer you must configure the environment of the oracle user.